Religiosity and Health, Health Behaviors, Mental Health, Psychological Well-being Studies of Seventh-day Adventists

Articles March 1, 2021

February 2021

Alina Baltazar, Duane McBride, Gary Hopkins, Curt VanderWaal


The purpose of this brief document is to provide research literature from health studies of Seventh-day Adventist populations. This is not meant to be comprehensive, but hopefully sufficient to assist in providing relevant references about studies focusing spirituality and health in Adventist populations. The literature comes from the work the Institute for Prevention of Addictions (IPA) team has done during the last few decades (, the data repository of the Adventist Human-Subject Researchers Association, the Adventist Health Studies in the School of Public Health at Loma Linda University, Project Genesis at La Sierra University, members of the Health Ministries team at the General Conference, and Digital Commons at Andrews University. The references are entered in the format that they were found. A list of variables that the IPA has collected in its every five-year health-risk behavior survey at Andrews University is also included as an example of relevant data that could be analyzed. While almost all references are exclusively focused on Adventists, a few are included that involve just a large number of Adventists.


We wish to acknowledge the help of:
Karl Bailey—professor, Psychology School of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Andrews University; co-principle investigator, Global Church Member Survey Meta-Analysis.
Petr Cincala—director, Institute of Church Ministry, Andrews University; vice president, Adventist Human-Subject Researchers Association. Dr. Cincala provided references from the AHSRA data bank—
Helen Hopp-Marshak—dean, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University.
Jerry Lee—professor, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University. Drs. Marshak and Lee provided references from the Adventist Health Study (
Josue Anguiano-Vega—chair of Administration and Leadership at La Sierra University. They house Value and Cognitive Genesis projects (

The references are placed in a standard format, but vary in terms of what they provide. We provided material that we found when we did the literature search. That may include a link to the article or an abstract.

Organization of This Report

The literature is organized into five categories. While some of the articles may address more than one category (and a few are entered in more than one), they are entered into what appeared to be their primary category. The categories are:

  1. Religion/spiritualty (defined as involvement, devotions, perceptions of relationship with God) and physical and mental-health status (including thriving, well-being).
  2. Religion/spiritualty and better health-behavior decisions (substance use, diet, exercise, use of medical care).
  3. Religion/spiritualty and coping/recovery from physical/mental health problems, trauma, life difficulties.
  4. Adventist health message (diet, no substance abuse, Sabbath, exercise) effect on spirituality/religion and relationship with God (kind of treating the health message as the independent variable).
  5. Following the Adventist health message and perception of physical and mental health.

1. Religion/Spirituality and Physical/Mental Health

Bailey, C. M. (1997), “The Effects of Religion on Mental Health—Implications for Seventh-day Adventists,” retrieved from In this article, Bailey assesses associations between religious orientation; denominational loyalty; and religious commitment and purpose in life in a social work program, including Adventists and non-Adventists.

Bailey, K.G.D.; Stelfox, J.A. (2018), “Hope for the Hereafter: Relationship and Hope Motivation in Seventh-day Adventists,” Promoting the Public Good: Policy in the Public Square and the Church; Terry-McElrath, Y. M.; VanderWaal, C. J.; Baltazar, A. M.; Trim, D.J.B. (Eds) (Cooranbong, N.S.W., Aust.: Avondale Academic Press), pp. 73-104.

Burks, E. M.; Lee, J. W.; Morton, K. R.; Berk, L. S.; Dos Santos, H. (2019 submitted), “The Effect of the Seventh-day Sabbath on Cortisol in Seventh-day Adventist Men and Women.”

Charlemagne-Badal, S. J.; Lee, J. W. (2015), “Intrinsic Religiosity and Hypertension Among Older North American Seventh-Day Adventists,” Journal of Religion & Health, 55(2), pp. 695-708, doi:10.1007/s10943-015-0102-x.

Charlemagne-Badal, S. J.; Lee, J. W. (2015), “Religious Social Support and Hypertension Among Older North American Seventh-Day Adventists,” Journal of Religion & Health, 55, pp. 709-728, doi:10.1007/s10943-015-0104-8.

Fider, C. R.; Lee, J. W.; Gleason, P. C.; Jones, P. (2017), “Influence of Religion on Later Burden and Health of New Black and White Caregivers,” Journal of Applied Gerontology, 38(9), pp. 1282-1303, doi:10.1177/0733464817703017.

Gillespie, V. B. (2001a), “Faith Maturity Index, Prosocial Behavior Concerns,” Update! Valuegenesis 2 information you can use, retrieved from

Gillespie, V. B. (2004a), “Adolescence and Peer Pressure,” Update! Valuegenesis 2 information you can use, retrieved from

Handysides, R. (1998), “Health Education in a Sample of Seventh-day Adventist Academies in North America,” Journal of Research on Christian Education, 7(2), pp. 137-154, retrieved from

Holland, K. J.; Lee, J. W.; Marshak, H. H.; Martin, L. R. (2016), “Spiritual Intimacy, Marital Intimacy, and Physical/Psychological Well-Being: Spiritual Meaning as a Mediator,” Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 8(3), pp. 218-227, doi:10.1037/rel0000062.

Hossler, E. A. (1998), “The Influence of Social Integration, Religious Integration, and Religious-Social Regulation on Suicidal Behaviors Among Seventh-day Adventist Youth” (unpublished doctoral dissertation, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Mich.), retrieved from Hossler/43b18e21c7396017ef9ba34e1bcaa86ab67e2452.

Lee, J. W. (Jan. 2009), “Sabbath and Health”—A workshop presented at the Mind and Spirit in Dialog meeting held at Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California. This presentation lays out a study with the purpose to develop a measure of Sabbath beliefs and activities, to determine the structure of these beliefs and activities, to compare the structure between Adventists and Christians who attend church on Sunday, and to learn how Sabbath beliefs and activities relate to health. Internet was used for collecting the data. Information retrieved from Includes link to the PowerPoint.

Morris, R. W.; Martin, B.; Hopson, J.; Welch-Murphy, K. (2010), “Besides That, I’m OK: Well-being Caribbean and American Adolescents and Youth,” Journal of Research on Christian Education, 19(1), pp. 56-78. A total of 235 adolescents and college students from Aruba, St. Lucia, Tennessee, and Alabama participated in this study, which measured various aspects of well-being. The Life Factors Questionnaire measured participants’ responses on such self-reported measures as health, intelligence, subjective well-being, stress, optimism, depressive symptoms; and on several open-ended queries of participants’ perceptions on life goals, role models, and important values. Results show that overall groups were quite similar on most of the well-being variables measured. Older participants tended to report more depressive symptoms than their younger counterparts. American adolescents and college students had more depressive symptoms than their Caribbean counterparts. Seventh-day Adventist adolescents reported twice as many depressive symptoms than students from different religious affiliations (RomanCatholic, etc.).Retrieved from

Morton, K. R.; Lee, J. W.; Martin, L. R. (2017), “Pathways from Religion to Health: Mediation by Psychosocial and Lifestyle Mechanisms,” Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 9(1), pp. 106-117, doi:10.1037/rel0000091.

Superville, D. J.; Pargament, K. I.; Lee, J. W. (2014), “Sabbath Keeping and Its Relationships to Health and Well-Being: A Mediational Analysis,” The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 24(3), pp. 241-256, doi:10.1080/10508619.2013.837655.

Titus, O.; Bailey, Karl (2013), “The Internalization of Religion Is Related to Improved Well-being and Parental Relationships” Faculty Publications, p. 79, retrieved from

2. Religion/Spirituality and Better Health Decisions

Bailey, Karl (2012), “Faith-Learning Integration, Critical Thinking Skills, and Student Development in Christian Education,” Faculty Publications, p. 80, retrieved from

Baltazar, A. M.; VanderWaal, C. J.; Conopio, K. D (Nov. 2013), “Perceptions of Health Behaviors by Seventh-day Adventist Undergraduate Students”—A workshop presented at Summit on Nurture and Retention, Discipling, Retaining, and Reclaiming at the General Conference headquarters, Silver Spring, Maryland. This presentation lays out a health-risk survey. The survey method is qualitative. Six focus groups were conducted. It includes perceptions of college life, substance use, sexual behaviors, religiosity,etc. Information retrieved from Includes link to the PowerPoint.

Baltazar, A. M. (July 2019), “The Influence of Spirituality on Health Choices in Young People”—A plenary presented at Your Brain, Your Body Third Global Conference on Health and Lifestyle, Loma Linda, California.

Baltazar, A. M. (Apr. 2019), “Living Up to Adventist Standards: The Role Religiosity Plays in Wellness Behaviors of Adventist College Students”—A workshop presented at Nurture and Retention Summit, Silver Spring, Maryland.

Baltazar, A. M. (2018), “Religiosity’s Relationship with Weekly and Binge Alcohol Use Among Students Attending an Alcohol-Abstinent Christian University,” Promoting the Public Good: Policy in the Public Square and the Church, Terry-McElrath, Y. M.; VanderWaal, C. J.; Baltazar, A. M.; Trim,
D.J.B. (Eds), (Cooranbong, N.S.W., Aust.: Avondale Academic Press), pp. 191-214.

Baltazar, A. M.; McBride, D. C.; VanderWaal, C.; Conopio, K. (2016), “Sex, Drugs, and Alcohol: What Adventist College Students Say About the Role of Parents and Religion,” Healthy Families for Eternity, W. Oliver and E. Oliver (Eds), (Hagerstown, Md.: Review and Herald Pub. Assn.), pp. 68-72.

Baltazar, A. M. (2015), “Role of Parents in College Student Regular Alcohol Use in the Context of Abstinent Religiosity” (ProQuest Dissertation Publishing), retrieved from

Baltazar, A. M.; Helm, Jr., H.H.; McBride, D. C.; Hopkins, G.; Stevens, Jr., J. V. (2010), “Internet Pornography Use in the Context of External and Internal Religiosity,” Journal of Psychology and Theology, 38(1), pp. 32-40.

Daily, S. G. (1991), “Adventist Adolescents and Addiction: Substance Use/Abuse in an Adventist Population and Its Relationship to Religion, Family, Self-perception, and Deviant Behavior” (unpublished doctoral dissertation), United States International University, San Diego, California.

Dudley, R. L.; Mutch, P. B.; Cruise, R. J. (1987), “Religious Factors and Drug Usage Among Seventh-day Adventist Youth in North America, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 26(2), pp. 218-233. In an attempt to identify factors that predict frequency of drug usage by youth within a conservative denomination, a sample of 801 young people between the ages of 12 and 24 from 71 churches in North America was chosen. The youth were questioned on the frequency of usage of 10 drug categories as well as reasons for not using drugs, a variety of religious attitudes and behaviors, and educational and membership practices. As a reason for not using drugs, “my commitment to Christ” was the strongest predictor of abstinence from alcohol, tobacco, and all drugs combined. Other factors of nearly equal strength were “I want to be in control of my life” and “concern for my health.” As to religious practices, regular participation in family worship was most highly related to abstinence over all categories with attendance at Sabbath School first for alcohol, and personal prayer first for tobacco. Watching R-rated movies and listening to hard rock music (both strongly discouraged by the church) were both predictive of more frequent use, while intending to remain in the church and believing that God wants us to take care of our bodies were both associated with less frequency. While membership status of youth, mother or father, or years of parochial education had little effect on frequency of usage, joining the church at a younger age had a weak protective effect.Information retrieved from

Felt, J.; McBride, D. C.; Helm, H. (2008), “Alcohol, Tobacco, and Marijuana Use Within a Religious Affiliated University, Journal of Drug Issues, 38,pp.799-819.

Flowers, K.M.C. (2018), “Parental and Religiosity Factors and Adolescent Sexual Risk Taking Among Older Adolescents in the Anglophone/Latin Caribbean,” Promoting the Public Good: Policy in the Public Square and the Church, Terry-McElrath, Y. M.; VanderWaal, C. J.; Baltazar, A. M.; Trim,
D.J.B. (Eds), (Cooranbong, N.S.W., Aust.: Avondale Academic Press), pp. 297-328.

Gane, A. Barry (2005), “Youth Ministry and Beliefs and Values Among 10- to 19-Year-Old Students in the Seventh-day Adventist School System in North America,” Dissertations, 388, retrieved from

Gillespie, V. B. (2003b), “How At-Risk Are Our Kids?” Update! Valuegenesis 2 information you can use, retrieved from

Gillespie, V. B. (2004b), “At-risk Behavior and Our Youth,” Update! Valuegenesis 2 information you can use, retrieved from

Helm, H. H.; Gondra, S. D.; McBride D. C. (2015), “Hook-up Culture Among College Students,” North American Journal of Psychology, 17, pp. 221-232.

Helm, H. W.; Lien, L. M.; McBride, D. C.; Bandon, B. (2009), “Comparison of Alcohol and Other Drug Use Trends Between a Prohibitionist University and National Data Sets,” Journal of Research on Christian Education, 18, pp. 190-205.

Helm, Jr., H. W.; McBride, D. C.; Knox, D.; Zusman, M. (2009), “The Influence of a Conservative Religion on Premarital Sexual Behavior of University Students, North American Journal of Psychology, 11(2), pp. 231-245.

Hopkins, G. (1996), “An AIDS-risk Appraisal of Students Attending Seventh-day Adventist High Schools in the United States and Canada” (dissertation), Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California. In the present study, 1,748 students attending 69 Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) four-year high schools completed a self-administered questionnaire designed to assess (1) the HIV/AIDS-related behaviors of substance use and sexual intercourse before marriage and the determinants of these two risk behaviors based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1989); and (2) HIV/AIDS-related attitudes, normative beliefs, and perceived control in a sample of SDA high school students based on the TPB.

A substantial number of research participants reported prior sexual and drug-use behaviors. The rates of both of these behaviors were lower in SDA than in non-SDA respondents. Those students who reported that their parent(s) used either tobacco, alcohol, or marijuana demonstrated higher rates of past sexual intercourse and substance use than those students who reported that their parent(s) were not users of any of the three substances.

Using multiple regression analysis, the best predictor of the respondent’s intention to have sexual intercourse before marriage was their perceived control over this behavior. Further, the cognitive underpinnings that best predicted the students perceived control regarding sexual intercourse before marriage were spiritual strength and encouragement from their teachers.

Useful conclusions drawn from this research were not that a certain proportion of SDA youth engaged in sexual behaviors or substance use, but were rather that SDA youth are not immune or exempt from engaging in behaviors that place them at risk for unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS. Also, some of the cognitive underpinnings of the students’ attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control as they relate to sexual intercourse have now been identified. Educators can now act by creatively designing strategies that, when implemented, may serve to reduce the consequences of the acts studied.

Information retrieved from Includes description (summary is above) and link to request full article.

Hopkins, G.; Freier, M.; Babikian, T.; Helm, Jr., H.; McBride, D.; Boward, M. (2004), “Substance Use Among Students Attending a Christian University That Strictly Prohibits the Use of Substances,” Journal of Research on Christian Education, 13(1), pp. 23-39.

Hopkins, G. L.; Hopp, J.; Marshak, H. H.; Neish, C.; Rhoads, G. (1997), “AIDS and Adventist Youth,” Ministry, 69(7), pp. 22-27, information retrieved from, and -and-adventist-youth.

Hopkins, G.; Hopp, J.; Marshak, H. H.; Neish, C.; Rhoads, G. (1998), “An AIDS-Risk Assessment of Students Attending Christian High Schools in the United States of America: A Practical Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior,” Journal of Research on Christian Education, 7(2), pp. 91-120.

Hopkins, G.; Ulery, L.; McBride, D.; Simmons, E.; Gaede, D. P.; Knight, H. J. (2009), “Service Learning and Community Service: An Essential Part of True Education,” Journal of Adventist Education, 71(2),pp.21-25.

McBride, D. C.; Freier, M. C.; Hopkins, G.; Babikian, T.; Richardson, L.; Helm, H.; Hopp-Marshak, H.; Broward, M. (2005), “Sector Health-Care Affairs, Quality of Parent-Child Relationship and Adolescent HIV Risk Behavior in St. Maarten,” AIDS Care, 17, pp. 45-54.

McBride, D. C.; Hopkins, G.; Baltazar, A.; VanderWaal, C.; Cinipio, K. (2013), “Family Dinners and Substance Use and Sexual Activity in a Prohibitionist University Population,” Faculty Publications, p. 85, retrieved from

McBride, D.; Baltazar, A. (2012), “Parental & Religiosity Influences on Alcohol Use & Sexual Behaviors Among Christian College Students,” Faculty Publications, p. 88, retrieved from

Perry, T. R. (2006), “Religiosity and Risk: The Influence of Adolescent Faith on Behavior” (unpublished doctoral dissertation), La Sierra University, Riverside, California, retrieved from

Thayer, J.; Kido, E. (2012), “Cognitive Genesis (GG): Assessing Academic Achievement and Cognitive Ability in Adventist Schools,” Journal of Research on Christian Education 21(2), pp. 95-115.

Weinbender, M.L.M.; Rossignol, A. M. (Summer 1996), “Lifestyle and Risk of Premature Sexual Activity in a High School Population of Seventh-day Adventists: Valuegenesis 1989,” Adolescence, 31, pp. 265-281, retrieved from

3. Religion/Spirituality and Coping/Recovery from Physical Mental Health Problems, Trauma, and Life Difficulties

Burnett, H. J.; Witzel, K.; Aller’s, K.; McBride, D. C.; (2016), “Understanding the Relationship of Trauma, Substance Abuse, and Resilience Among Religiously Affiliated University Students,” Journal of Research on Christian Education, 25:(1), pp. 317-334.

Carbonell, N. J.; Sedlacek, D.; Trecartin, S.; VanderWaal, C. J. (March 2019), “SDA Christian LGBT+ Family Support, Depression & Suicide: Findings and Implications,” presented at the Christian Association of Psychological Studies, Dallas, Texas.

Heck, A.; Drumm, R.; McBride, D.; Sedlacek, D. (2017), “Seventh-day Adventist Clergy: Understanding Stressors and Coping Mechanisms,” Review of Religious Research, 60, pp. 115-132.

Lee, J. W.; Morton, K. R.; Walters, J.; Bellinger, D. L.; Butler, T. L.; Wilson, C.; Fraser, G. E. (2009), “Cohort Profile: The Biopsychosocial Religion and Health Study (BRHS),” International Journal of Epidemiology, 38(6), pp. 1470-1478, doi:10.1093/ije/dyn244.

Morton, K. R.; Lee, J. W.; Haviland, M. G.; Fraser, G. E. (2012), “Religious Engagement in a Risky Family Model Predicting Health in Older Black and White Seventh-day Adventists,” Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 4(4), pp. 298-311, doi:10.1037/a0027553.

Morton, K. R.; Tanzini, L.; Lee, J. W. (2019), “Adult Life Satisfaction and the Role of Forgiveness After Childhood Sexual Abuse: Evidence from a Seventh-day Adventist Cohort,” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 58(1), pp. 138-152, doi:10.1111/jssr.12575.

Reinert, K. G.; Campbell, J. C.; Bandeen-Roche, K.; Lee, J. W.; Szanton, S. (2016), “The Role of Religious Involvement in the Relationship Between Early Trauma and Health Outcomes Among Adult Survivors, Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 9, pp. 231-241, doi:10.1007/s40653-015-0067-7.

Reinert, K. G.; Campbell, J. C.; Bandeen‐Roche, K.; Sharps, P.; Lee, J. (2015), “Gender and Race Variations in the Intersection of Religious Involvement, Early Trauma, and Adult Health,” Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 47(4), pp. 318-327, doi:10.1111/jnu.12144.

Sedlacek, D.; Drumm, R.; Trecartin, S.; Carbonell, N.; VanderWaal, C. J. (Oct. 2018), “LGBT+ Seventh-day Adventist Millennials: How Spirituality Connects to Risk and Protection,” presented at the North American Association of Christians in Social Work, Hartford, Connecticut.

Teteh, D. K.; Lee, J. W.; Montgomery, S. B.; Wilson, C. M. (2019), “Working Together with God: Religious Coping, Perceived Discrimination, and Hypertension,” Journal of Religion and Health, doi:10.1007/s10943-019-00822-w.

VanderWaal, C. J., Gavin, J. T.; Ellis, W. (2018), “Seventh-day Adventist Opinions on Same-Sex Attraction and Same-Sex Unions,” Promoting the Public Good: Policy in the Public Square and the Church, Terry-McElrath, Y. M.; VanderWaal, C. J.; Baltazar, A. M.; Trim, D.J.B. (Eds), (Cooranbong, N.S.W., Aust.: Avondale Academic Press), pp. 191-214.

VanderWaal, C. J.; Trecartin, S.; Drumm, R. (Nov. 2018), “Saving Grace: Suicide Risk and Protective Factors Among Christian LGBT+ Millennials,” presented at the Council on Social Work Education Annual Program Meeting, Orlando, Florida.

VanderWaal, C. J.; Sedlacek, D.; Trecartin, S.; Carbonell, N. J. (May 2018), “The Impact of Family Support and Rejection Among Seventh-day Adventist LGBT+ Millennials,” plenary presentation at the Adventist Research Conference: Social Sciences, Berrien Springs, Michigan.

Webb, A. P.; Ellison, C. G.; McFarland, M. J.; Lee, J. W.; Morton, K.; Walters, J. (2010), “Divorce, Religious Coping, and Depressive Symptoms in a Conservative Protestant Religious Group,” Family Relations, 59(5), 544-557, doi:10.1111/j.1741-3729.2010.00622.x.

4. Accepting Adventist Health Message Effect on Spirituality, Relationship with God, and Behavior

McBride, D. C.; Landless, P.; Bailey, K.; Baltazar, A.; Trim, D. (Oct. 31, 2019), “Health Beliefs, Behavior, and Perception of Spiritual Growth and Salvation: A Descriptive Analysis from a Global Church Member Survey,”presented at the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, St. Louis, Missouri.

Baltazar, A.; VanderWaal, C.; McBride, D.; and Hopkins, G. (2012), “ ‘My Body Is God’s Temple’: Self-Identified Reasons for Not Engaging in Risk Behaviors Among Adventist Young Adults,” Faculty Publications, 84, retrieved from

5. Following Adventist Health Message and Physical/Mental Health/Health Decisions

Ashley, G. (2004), “Faculty Stress and Health Practices: Stress Among Higher Education Seventh-day Adventist Faculty Who Practice NEWSTART Health Principles” (dissertation). This study explored the stress levels experienced by faculty members who practice a set of health principles developed and advocated by the Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) religious organization to promote health and well-being. The principles summarized in the acronym NEWSTART (Nutrition, Exercise, Water, Sunshine, Temperance, Air, Rest, Trust in divine power) are basic to the SDA organization’s healthy lifestyle promotion. The study investigated the relationship between the practice of NEWSTART principles and levels of stress among faculty, who were selected from three SDA postsecondary schools. Stress is one of the leading causes of burnout. Three questionnaires were used: The Faculty Stress Index (FSI) developed by Walter Gmelch, a NEWSTART questionnaire, and a demographic profile developed for this study. The total number of full-time faculty members at these three institutions during the data-collection phase of this study was 382. A total of 124 questionnaires were returned. The findings indicated that two of the five FSI concepts yielded significant results: Time Constraints, followed by Reward and Recognition. The results suggested that the degree to which faculty members practiced the NEWSTART health principles may have had a positive effect (less stress) in the level of faculty stress they experience in the areas of time constraints (e.g., clerical work, phone calls, and interruptions) and reward and recognition (e.g., the amount of recognition faculty receive in relation to the amount of time/energy invested in the completion of their job-related duties). The findings provide baseline information on health practices used by faculty at SDA institutions and the effectiveness of this model as a means of faculty stress reduction. Future research should involve faculty from non-SDA institutions as a comparison group. Information retrieved from Includes where to locate dissertation.

Baltazar, A. M.; McBride, D. C.; Ames, B.; Griffore, R. J. (2020), “Transitioning Role of Parents in Binge Drinking in the Context of Alcohol-Abstinent Religiosity Among Christian College Students,” Journal of Research in Christian Education, 29 (1), pp. 82-102, retrieved from

McBride, D. C.; Hopkins, G. L.; Baltazar, A. M.; VanderWaal, C. J. (Nov. 2015), “Acceptance of Health Emphasis in Doctrines of the Seventh-day Adventist Church and Alcohol Abuse/Use in a Population of Young Adult Church Members,” workshop presented at American Public Health Association Annual Meeting, Chicago, Illinois.

Some Overview Articles on Spirituality and Health

Landless, P. N. (2018), “The More Abundant Life: Seventh-day Adventist Views on Health, Healing, Wellness, and Prevention,” Promoting the Public Good: Policy in the Public Square and the Church, Terry-McElrath, Y. M.; VanderWaal, C. J.; Baltazar, A. M.; Trim, D.J.B. (Eds), (Cooranbong, N.S.W., Aust.: Avondale Academic Press), pp. 131-144. This provides an excellent overview of the Adventist health message and its theological base.

McBride, D. C.; Mutch, P. B.; Chitwood, D. D. (1996), “Religious Belief and the Initiation and Prevention of Drug Use Among Youth,” Intervening with Drug-Involved Youth, McCoy, C. B.; Metsch, L. R.; Inciardi, J. A. (Eds), (Newberry Park, Calif., Sage Pub.), pp. 110-130. This article provides a general historical overview of religion and substance use.

Reinert, K. G.; Koenig, H. G. (2013), “Re-examining Definition of Spirituality in Nursing Research,” JournalofAdvancedNursing 69(12), pp. 2622–2634, doi: 10.1111/jan.12152. This article is an excellent meta-analysis of relevant literature on spirituality and health.

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